See Khay Wai1,2 , Noor Saleha Selamat1, Pang Jia Yew1 , Nasri A. Hamid1,

Amir Basha Ismail1 and Badrol Ahmad2


1College of Graduate Studies, Universiti Tenaga Nasional,

43009 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

2TNB Research Sdn. Bhd.

Jalan Air Hitam, Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan,
Kajang, Selangor



A key issue for most applications of superconductivity involves AC losses. Designers need to understand the mechanisms of AC losses in order to lay out the conductors and windings correctly to predict the performance range in operation. AC losses in high temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi-2212) bulk material used in a fault current limiter model have been investigated through the measurement of the actual specific heat of the sample and a time varying magnetic field. This paper derives simple, if approximate, expression for calculating the losses in the most important cases for practical purposes. Four different orientations of the sample with respect to the field were tested and the results are shown graphically. It will be shown also the comparison between experimental calorimetric results and theoretical analysis of various direction of the applied field. AC loss characteristics were employed to evaluate the nominal and activation current of the full scale fault current limiter.




[1]            Poole Jr., C.P. 2000. Handbook of Superconductivity, Academy Press, San Diego

[2]            Terry P., Kevin A. 1990. Foundations of Applied Superconductivity, Addison-Wesley, California

[3]            Wilson, M.N. 1998. Superconducting Magnets, Oxford Science Publication

[4]            Mahdi, A.E., Hughes, T., Beduz, C., Harris, M.R., Stoll, R.L., Sykulski, J.K., Arnold, R.J. 2004 (Internet). Department of Electrical Engineering and the Institute of Cryogenics University of Southampton

[5]            Poole, C.P., Farach, H. A., Creswick, R.J. 2000. Superconductivity, Academic Press Inc.

[6]            Malozemoff, A.P. 1994. Proceedings of Topical International Cryogenics Materials Conference, Tokai University Pacific Centre, Japan

[7]            Campbell, A. M. 1995. IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 5(2), 683

[8]            Flippen, R.B. 1993, Applied Superconductivity 1(2), Central Research and Development, UK

[9]            Prigozhin, L. and Sokolousky, V. 2004, IEEE Trans.  Appl. Supercond. 14(1) 69

[10]         Wolfbrandt, A., Magnusson, N. and Sven Homfeldt, S. 2001, IEEE Trans.  Appl. Supercond,. 11(2), 1265

[11]         Sokolovsky, V.,  Meerovich, V., Goren, S. and Jung, G. 1999, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9(2), 875

[12]         Yazawa, T., Tasaki, K., Tosaka, T., Kurusu, S. and Maeda, H. 1996. IEEE Trans. Mag. 32(4), 78

[13]         Badia, A. and Lopez, C. 2002. The Critical State in Type-II Superconductors with Cross Flow Effects, Academy Press, New York