Mesopores and micropores of carbon pellet prepared from H2SO4 treated self-adhesive carbon grains from oil palm empty fruit bunches
Astimar Abdul Aziz2, Mohamad Deraman1, Mohd. Hafizuddin Jumali1, Ramli Omar1, Abubaker-Elshiekh Abdelrahman1, Tang Hon Peng1, Mazliza Mohtar1,
of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan
Palm Oil Board,
Self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) was treated with 0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 M of H2SO4 before drying. Green pellets prepared from the treated SACG were carbonized at 600 0C in nitrogen atmosphere using multi-steps heating profile to produce carbon pellets (CP). Elemental (CHNO) analysis of the treated SACG shows a reduction of carbon content from 49.3 % to 42.9%, whereas thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows an increase of carbon yield at 600 0C from 39.5% to 45.3%. Treatment with 0.0 M to 0.2 M H2SO4 increased the BET surface area (SBET) of the CP from 56.2 up to 354.4 m2/g STP respectively, and the maximum SBET is 386.5 m2/g STP at 0.6 M treatment. Similar trend was observed on the CP micropore area (SMIC) whereby the maximum SMIC is 360.54 m2/g STP at 0.6 M. Mesopore area (SMES) of the CP increased to 81.9 m2/g STP at 0.2 M. However, further increase of acid concentration was found to reduce the SMES of the CP. Maximum total pore volume (VTOT) and micropore volume (VMIC) of the CP treated with 0.6 M H2SO4 were 0.193 and 0.146 cc/g STP respectively. Maximum mesopore volume (VMES) of the CP was 0.065 cc/g STP and was achieved when treated with at 0.2 M H2SO4. Further increasing acid concentration was found to reduce the VMES of the CP. Increase of H2SO4 concentration up to 0.4 M was found to reduce the mesoporosity (VMES/VTOT) as well as the average pore diameter of the carbon pellets, but these values increased slightly at 0.6M.
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