Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica and Zeolite Phase Transformation of Coal Fly Ash from Kapar Power Plant


H. Misran1*, R. A. Kamarudin1, M. S. Zakaria1 and R. Singh2


1 Dept of Eng. Sciences and Mathematics, College of Engineering,UNITEN

Km 7, Jalan Kajang-Puchong, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, MALAYSIA.

2 Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, UNITEN

Km 7, Jalan Kajang-Puchong, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, MALAYSIA.






Coal fly ash (CFA) was sintered with and without alkali additives. Supernatant of these sintered CFA were used in the synthesis of zeolites and mesoporous silica MCM41.  Faujasite phase was mixed with sodium silicate phase in samples sintered with alkali additives from x-ray diffraction analyses.  Mesoporous materials MCM-41 with pores of ordered 2-dimensional (2d) hexagonal structure were successfully prepared from condensation-polymerization of quaternary ammonium salt as structure directing agent and supernatant of the CFA sintered with alkali additives from Kapar power plant as silica precursor.  The materials had high surface area of 732 m2/g and median pore diameter of 2.5 nm by density functional theory method (DFT).  X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that alkali additives are important in extracting silica from quartz and mullite. 





[1]            Beck, J.S., Vartulli, J.C., Roth, W.J., Leonowicz, M.E., Kresge, C.T., Schmitt, K.D., Chu, C.T.-W., Olson, D.H., Sheppard, E.W., McCullen, S.B., Higgins, J.B., Schlenker, J.L.(1992), J. Am. Chem. Soc., 114, 10834-10843.

[2]            Yanagisawa, T., Shimizu, T., Kuroda, K., Kato, C. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, (1990), 63, 988-992.

[3]            Inagaki, S., Fukushima, Y., Kuroda, K. J., (1993) Chem. Comm., 680-682.

[4]            Kresge, C.T., Leonowicz, M.E., Roth, W.J., Vartulli, J.C., Beck, J.S. (1992), J. Am. Chem. Soc., 114, 10834-10843.

[5]            Inagaki, S., Koiwai, A., Suzuki, N., Fukushima, Y., Kuroda, K. (1996) Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 69,1449-1457.

[6]            Prasad, P. N. (1991)Polymer, 32, 1746.

[7]            Avnir, D., Levy, D., Reisfeld, R., (1984), J. Phys. Chem., 88, 5956.

[8]            Tanaka, H., Takahashi, H., Tsuchiya, J.(1989) J. Non-Cryst. Solids., 109, 164.

[9]            Pang, Y., Samoc, M., Prasad, P.N.(1991) J. Chem. Phys., 94, 5282.

[10]         C. Wang, B., Wilkes, G.L. (1994) J. Macromol. Sci. Pure Appl. Chem., A31, 249.

[11]         Ramli, Z., Bahruji, H., Malaysian Journal of Chemistry, (2003), 5(1), 48-55.

[12]         Zevenbergen C., Bradley, J.P., Reeuwijk, L.P.V., Shyam. A.K., Hjelmar, O., Comans, R.N.J. (1999) Environ. Sci. Technol., 33, 3405.

[13]         Tanaka, H.; Sakai, Y.; Hino, R. (2002) Mater. Research Bull., 37, 1873-1884.

[14]         Coal Ash Handbook, ed. Japan Environmental Technology Association Tokyo and Japan Fly Ash Association, Tokyo, 2nd Edition, 1995.

[15]         Mimura, H., Yokota, K., Akiba, K., Onodera, Y. (2001) J. Nuclear Science and Tech. 38, 766-772.

[16]         Mouhtaris, T., Charistos, D., Kantiranis, N., Fillipidis, A., Kassoli-Fournaraki, A., Tsirambidis, A. (2003) Microporous and Mesoporous Mat., 61, 57-67.

[17]         Querol, X., Moreno, N., Umana, J.C., Alastuey, A., Hernandez, E., Lopez-Soler, A., Plana, F. (2002), Coal Geology, 50, 413-423.

[18]         Chang, H.L., Shih, W.H. (1998), Ind. Chem. Res, 37, 71-78.

[19]         Chang, H.L., Shih, W.S. (2000), Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 39, 4185-4191.

[20]         Shigemoto, M., Hayashi, H., Miyaura, K. (1993) J. Mater.Sci., 28, 4781-4786.

[21]         Park, M.; Choi, C.L., Lim, W.T., Kim, M.C., Choi, J., Heo, N.H. (2000) Microporous and Mesoporous Mat., 37, 81-89.

[22]         Park, M., Choi, C.L., Lim, W.T., Kim, M.C., Choi, J., Heo, N.H. (2000) Microporous and Mesoporous Mat., 37, 91-98.

[23]         Schumacher, K., Grün, M., Unger, K.K. (1999), Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 27, 201.

[24]         Matsumoto, A., Misran, H., Tsutsumi, K. (2004), Langmuir, 20(17), 7139-7145. 

[25]         Kumar, P., Mal, N., Oumi, Y., Yamana, K., Sano.,T., (2001) J. Mater. Chem.,11, 3285-3290.

[26]         Wakihara, T., Sugiyama, A., Okubo, T, (2004) Microporous and Mesoporous Mat., 70,7-13.