Solid State Science and Technology, Vol. 14, No 1(2006) 39-48

ISSN 0128-7389




Abubaker Elshiekh Abdelrahman1, Mohamad Deraman1, Sarani Zakaria1,

Mohd Hafizuddin Jumali1, Ramli Omar1, Astimar Abdul Aziz2,

Mazliza Mohtar1 and Rozan Mohamad Yunus1


1School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

2Malaysian Palm Oil Board, P.O. Box 10620, 50720 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia



Carbon pellets (CPs) precursor (cotton cellulose) was first pre-carbonized at low carbonization temperature, milled for 20 h and sieved to produce self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). The SACG was treated with KOH having concentration from 0 to 0.07

Moles (M) and converted into green pellets (GPs) by applying 12 metric tones compression load on 2 g of samples in a mould with diameter of 2.72 cm. These GPs were carbonized up to the temperature of 500 C-1000 C, using a multi-steps heating profile. The CPs produced was washed by distilled water until reaching a pH of 6. The thermogravimetric data showed that with increasing KOH concentration, the weight loss of the samples at 600 C markedly decreased, particularly at 0.07 M KOH concentration, and the maximum rate of weight loss for all the treated samples was higher and occurred at lower temperatures. The interlayer spacing (d002), stack height (Lc) and stack diameter (La,) of the turbostratic crystallites in the CPs estimated from Xray diffraction data showed that (a) for the CPs from the untreated GPs, d002 increased with increasing carbonization temperature and linearly increased with 1/La, (b) for the CPs (1000 C) from the treated GPs, d002 decreased with increasing KOH concentration but linearly increased with 1/La. These findings indicate that the CPs have larger dimension of the turbostratic crystallites at higher temperatures, and such a dimension decreased for the GPs treated with higher KOH concentration.



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